Movement disorders are neurological diseases and syndromes affecting the ability to generate and control movement. This disorder mainly affects brain, spinal cord and nerves throughout the body giving rise to cerebrovascular diseases, degenerative diseases of adult life, trauma, neuro-genetic diseases, developmental disorders, metabolic diseases, convulsive disorders, infectious diseases and brain tumors. According to World Health Organization (WHO), in year 2012, the U.S. health department recorded 6 million patients suffering from various movement disorders.
The movement disorders that have high prevalence rate are Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, essential tremor, Huntington ’s disease, multiple system atrophy (MSA) among others. These diseases are initially diagnosed by collecting information about family history of patients, history of disease symptoms, neurological examination and other diagnostic tests such as blood test and imaging. Blood tests include complete blood count (CBC), creatine kinase test, DNA analysis (to determine if the disorder is genetic) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Imaging tests that are used to diagnose movement disorders are computed tomography (CT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan), and positron emission tomography (PET scan).
In some cases to monitor electrical activity within the body for diagnosis of muscle and nerve disorders electromyogram (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) are applied. Muscle biopsy was also observed to be one of the major diagnostic procedures that helps to differentiate between muscle and nerve disorder. In this procedure a sample of muscle is removed post local anesthesia for microscopic evaluation. Thus, diagnostics segment is driven by high prevalence rate of neurological diseases and increasing social awareness about these disorders.
The treatment for movement disorders is dependent on the type of movement disease. The first line of treatment mainly consists of anticonvulsants (such as carbamazepine or divalproex sodium), beta-blockers (propranolol), dopamine agonists (bromocriptine or pergolide) and tranquilizers (diazepam or clonazepam). In some cases the antipsychotics such as risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, chlorpromazine or haloperidol are used to suppress involuntary muscle activity. In Parkinson’s disease Levodopa, selegiline and amantadine are commonly used in Parkinson\’s disease to improve dopamine balance and reduce symptoms.
In Huntington disease monoamine-depleting agents (monoamines are brain chemicals), such as reserpine, trihexyphenidyl or benztropine mesylate are applied. Botulinum toxin a neurotoxin is used in case of spasmodic torticollis, blepharospasm, myoclonus, and tremors to release muscle contraction causing neurotransmission. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) device is an implantable battery-operated medcial device used to deliver electrical stimulation to areas of the brain that control movement. Ablative surgery is one of the surgical processes that produce chemical or electrical impulses that cause abnormal movements where a heated probe or electrode is inserted into the targeted area to destroy certain tissues. The other ablation surgeries used to treat movement disorders are pallidotomy used to eliminate uncontrolled dyskinesia and thalamotomy applied to eliminate tremor.
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North America was observed to be the largest market for movement disorder diagnosis and treatment. This dominance was mainly due to high prevalence of the disorder, technological advancements and high awareness among the patient population. Europe was observed to be the second largest market and one of the leading research destinations for neurological disease diagnosis and treatment. Asia-Pacific and Rest of the World were observed to be the most potential markets for movement disorders diagnosis and treatment market. These regions lack in advanced infrastructure and disease awareness. The future growth in these geographical regions is expected due to the presence of emerging economies such as China, India, Brazil and other countries that primarily prefer healthcare sector for developmental investment.
Some of the key players involved in the movement disorder market are Abbott Laboratories,Inc., Baxter International, Inc., Cardinal Health, Boston Scientific Corporation, Forest Laboratories, Hospira, Inc., F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Medtronic, Inc. Merck Serono, Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Neuroptix Corporation, Pfizer, Inc. and Torrent Pharma.